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Biological Warfare Investigation: Feb. 13, 2001

Case Narrative Close-Out Reports are summaries of discontinued investigations into possible exposures of U.S. servicemembers to chemical or biological warfare agents during the Gulf War. The Office of the Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness, and Military deployments began this investigation of biological warfare agents in response to concerns Iraq may have used biological warfare agents against Coalition forces and agents may be a cause of unexplained illnesses seen in Gulf War veterans.

The Presidential Special Oversight Board requested that we provide a summary of this investigation, which we did at a public hearing on Sept.16, 1999. Based on that summary, the Board concluded that information obtained to date in this investigation, the emerging results, and the anticipated outcomes from continued investigation are not likely to improve our understanding of any unexplained illnesses. Consequently, the Presidential Special Oversight Board recommended terminating further investigation. In addition, to bring the investigation to closure, the Board requested that we complete a close-out report to present the data, documentary evidence, and findings compiled during the course of the investigation.

The initial close-out report published Oct. 26, 2000, complied with the Board's recommendation. Since that time we have received approval to reference additional documentation and this report adds footnotes to link that material not cleared for release at the time of original publication. However, we were aware of the newly footnoted information during the investigation and we considered it when developing the findings and conclusions, which have not changed in this report. If you believe you have additional information related to biological warfare during the Gulf War, please contact my office by calling: 1-800-497-6261

I. Overview

Read the Overview

II. Investigation

A. Methodology

B. Iraq's Biological Threat

C. Post-War Findings

D. U.S. Biological Warfare Defense

E. Gulf War Biological Warfare Medical Preparedness

F. Detecting, Evaluating, and Reporting Biological Agents

G. Desert Shield and Desert Storm Biological Warfare Agent Detection Capabilities

H. Biological Sampling

III. Significant Findings

A. General

B. Lessons Learned

IV. Discussion

Read the Discussion

 

Tab A. Acronyms, Abbreviations and Glossary

A. Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

B. Glossary

 

Tab B. Bibliography

See the Bibliography

 

Tab C. Anthrax

Overview

Signs and Symptoms

Desert Shield and Desert Storm Anthrax Prophylaxis

Anthrax Vaccine Efficacy

 

Tab D. Botulism

Overview

Signs and Symptoms

Desert Shield/Desert Storm Botulinum Toxin Prophylaxis

 

Tab E. Trichothecene Mycotoxin (T-2)

Overview

Signs and Symptoms

Prophylaxis and Treatment

 

Tab F. Aflatoxin

Overview

 

Tab G. Plague

Overview

Signs and Symptoms

 

Tab H. List of New Information

Version 1.1

 

End Notes

View the End Notes

Last Updated: March 13, 2023
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