Back to Top Skip to main content

Women and depression

Mental health technicians assigned to the 48th Medical Group Mental Health Flight converse in the hospital reception area at Royal Air Force Lakenheath, England. The Mental Health Flight is one of many resources available to assist with depression and other mental health concerns. (U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Shanice Williams-Jones) Mental health technicians assigned to the 48th Medical Group Mental Health Flight converse in the hospital reception area at Royal Air Force Lakenheath, England. The Mental Health Flight is one of many resources available to assist with depression and other mental health concerns. (U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Shanice Williams-Jones)

Recommended Content:

Mental Wellness | Women's Health | Depression | Mental Health Care

Imagine having feelings of worthlessness or helplessness. Imagine being unable to sleep, feeling restless and irritable much of the time, or even hiding under the covers afraid to face the day. Many who suffer from depression may not be able to concentrate at work or perhaps even get to work. Those experiencing high- and low-functioning depression know such feelings all too well.

But for women, there are certain times in their lives when a depression diagnosis is more common. Research has shown that hormonal changes at three stages of life—puberty, post-pregnancy, and during perimenopause—may trigger clinical depression.

Dr. Nancy Skopp, research psychologist at the Psychological Health Center of Excellence, described clinical depression, or major depressive disorder, as a depressed mood lasting at least two weeks and marked by a loss of interest in things that once were pleasurable. She noted that this period would contain a clear change from previous functioning. If someone isn’t completing work duties, shows up late for work, or experiences profound fatigue and avoids interaction with family and friends, depression could be the cause.

“Depression symptoms in women often occur around a reproductive event,” said Skopp, adding that there is some evidence that suggests women may have a chronic and recurrent course with longer and more frequent episodes than men.

Symptoms of depression from the National Institute of Mental Health

Skopp cited statistics from the National Institute of Mental Health showing that 50-80 percent of new mothers may experience the “baby blues,” which usually appear about a week after giving birth and include feeling down, irritability, sleep problems, anxiety, and eating too much or too little. The difference is that the symptoms are mild and usually resolve in a week or two.

Postpartum depression is much more serious, Skopp said. Between 10 and 20 percent of new mothers experience depression, according to NIMH statistics. Symptoms of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion may make it difficult to complete daily activities as a new mother.

During perimenopause, usually between the ages of 40 and 50, when the ovaries gradually begin to make less estrogen, depressive symptoms combine with menopausal symptoms. Women may also experience other life challenges, such as the demands of caring for aging parents, a change in marital status, health problems, or negative attitudes about aging. Skopp said although men may experience similar stresses at midlife, the hormonal changes experienced by women may compound such stresses. “It’s a very challenging time,” she said.

Approximately 12 million women in the United States experience clinical depression each year, with one in eight experiencing depression in her lifetime, according to NIMH research. This rate of depression corresponds to hormonal changes in women, particularly during these three life stages, suggesting that female hormonal fluctuations may be a trigger for depression. Another trigger may be gender differences between women and men, which may be genetic or involve life stressors and coping styles.

Skopp says research shows women may have a greater tendency to internalize in the face of depressive symptoms. Men appear to be more likely than women to cope with such symptoms through behavioral distraction, such as doing something that takes the mind off depressive feelings. The result appears to be that more active distraction in men may shorten or prevent a depressive episode whereas internalization in women may prolong it. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that between 2013 and 2016, 10.4 percent of women experienced depression compared to 5.5 percent of men.

“Being in the military can magnify the depression triggers one might experience in the general population,” said Navy Cmdr. Paulette Cazares, associate director for mental health at the Naval Medical Center San Diego.

“The benefit of seeing depression as any other illness allows service members to realize the necessity of early treatment, and the ability to stay focused on career and personal goals,” Cazares said. “Psychotherapy or antidepressant medications are first-line options to treat depression and reduce chances of a relapse. Meditation and yoga as therapy have also been used successfully to alleviate depressive symptoms.”

If you have symptoms of depression, talk to your health care provider. A loved one showing symptoms should be encouraged to speak to a health care provider as well. Military OneSource also has resources and information available for service members and their families.

You also may be interested in...

Mammograms recommended for early detection of breast cancer

Article
10/4/2018
Navy Chief Hospital Corpsman Naomi Perez, a certified mammogram technician, conducts a mammogram for a patient at Naval Hospital Pensacola. A mammogram is a low-dose x-ray procedure used to detect the early stages of breast cancer. October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and NHP is taking the opportunity to educate patients about the dangers of breast cancer and the importance of getting checked. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brannon Deugan)

A mammogram is a low-dose x-ray used to detect the early stages of breast cancer

Recommended Content:

Preventive Health | Women's Health

Midwives in the Military

Video
10/3/2018
Midwives in the Military

Military midwives are key in the Department of Defense's priority of medical readiness. Army Lt. Col. Danielle Molinar shares ways midwives keep female soldiers ready to deploy.

Recommended Content:

Women's Health

Depression

Fact Sheet
9/27/2018

A fact sheet that reviews the signs, symptoms, and effects, both mental and physical of depression.

Recommended Content:

Depression

What to Expect at Your First Appointment

Video
9/20/2018
What to Expect at Your First Appointment

You’ve reached out for help, you’ve found the right provider, now Kristin Gwin from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center shares what to expect at your first appointment.

Recommended Content:

Mental Health Care

Kristin Gwin, Walter Reed Social Worker Talks About Getting Help

Video
9/12/2018
Kristin Gwin, Walter Reed Social Worker Talks About Getting Help

Kristin Gwin, a Social Worker at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center understands that getting help can be an intimidating process. She offers advice on how to get started by letting a professional know you want help.

Recommended Content:

Mental Health Care | Suicide Prevention

Stopping bullying takes understanding, involvement

Article
9/7/2018
Children can experience social withdrawal, anxiety, and depression as a result of bullying. From the Stop Bullying campaign to Military OneSource, resources are available to help parents and their families identify and address bullying (U.S. Air Force graphic by Staff Sgt. Jamal D. Sutter)

Bullying can leave visible and invisible wounds and have lasting effects on children and teenagers. Signs of the behavior can vary, and bullying others and being bullied are not mutually exclusive, experts say.

Recommended Content:

Mental Wellness | Children's Health | Suicide Prevention

How sharing my PTSD struggles helped others—and me

Article
9/4/2018
Army Sgt. Jon Harmon lost both legs after stepping on an improvised explosive device while on a 2012 Afghanistan mission. Today he speaks to commands and veterans about his personal struggle with mental health and how he works to overcome it. (Photo by Kevin Fleming, U.S. Army Sustainment Command)

Army Sgt. Jon Harman 82nd Airborne Division, liaison officer at Walter Reed Military Medical Center

Recommended Content:

Mental Wellness | Mental Health Care | Suicide Prevention | Men's Health

Getting off tobacco road leads to renewed relief

Article
8/10/2018
Stopping smoking can be difficult, but healthy living is a daily effort. Take command of your health today. (U.S. Army graphic by Karin Martinez)

One service member’s struggle to become smoke-free

Recommended Content:

Preventive Health | Mental Wellness | Tobacco-Free Living

DHA PI 6490.02: Behavioral Health (BH) Treatment and Outcomes Monitoring

Policy

This Defense Health Agency-Procedural Instruction (DHA-PI), based on the authority of References (a) and (b), and in accordance with the guidance of References (c) through (k): a. Establishes the Defense Health Agency’s (DHA) procedures for the collection and analysis of BH outcome data. b. Addresses how DoD will standardize BH outcome data collection to: assess variations in mental health and substance use care among in-garrison medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and clinics; assess the relationship of treatment protocols and practices to BH outcomes; and identify barriers to provider implementation of evidence-based clinical guidance approved by DoD. c. Designates the Army as the DoD lead Service for maintenance and sustainment of the Behavioral Health Data Portal (BHDP) in specialty care mental health and substance use clinics, referred to collectively as BH clinics, until BHDP functionality can be integrated with GENESIS or another electronic health record (EHR) system managed by DHA. d. Designates DHA Information Operations (J-6) as lead on transitioning BHDP functional requirements related to outcomes monitoring to future EHR data collection platforms and processes.

There is hope

Article
7/12/2018

More than 350,000 deaths are attributed to opioid overdoses nationwide since 1999

Recommended Content:

Mental Health Care | Substance Abuse | Addiction | Mental Wellness | Opioid Safety

TRICARE Mental Health

Video
5/24/2018
TRICARE Mental Health

Watch this video to learn more about the mental health care benefits TRICARE provides

Recommended Content:

Mental Health Care

Cold weather injuries during deployments, July 2012 – June 2017

Infographic
1/18/2018
During the 5-year surveillance period, 105 cold weather injuries were diagnosed and treated in service members deployed outside the U.S. of these, 39 (37%) were immersion injuries; 33 (31%) were frostbite; 16 (15%) were hypothermia; and 17 (16%) were “unspecified” cold weather injuries. Pie chart for cold weather injuries during deployments displays depicting the information above. Number of cold weather injuries bar chart: Of all 105 cold weather injuries during the surveillance period, 68% occurred during the first two cold seasons. Bar chart shows the number of cold weather injuries by year: •	2012-2013 cold season had 35 cold weather injuries •	2013-2014 cold season had 100 cold weather injuries •	2014 -2015 cold season had 13 cold weather injuries •	2015-2016 cold season had 11 cold weather injuries •	2016 – 2017 had 10 cold weather injuries Access the full report in the October 2017 MSMR (Vol. 24, No. 10). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR  #ColdReadiness

This infographic documents cold weather injuries during deployments for the July 2012 – June 2017 cold seasons.

Recommended Content:

Women's Health | Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Health Readiness

Gestational diabetes among pregnant service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces 2012 – 2016

Infographic
1/5/2018
Gestational diabetes is an abnormal increase in blood sugar levels that can adversely affect the health of both a pregnant woman and her baby. During 2012 – 2016, 4,017 (6.3%) of active component female service members who had live births were affected by gestational diabetes. Women aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had consistently higher annual prevalences of gestational diabetes than younger females. The percentage of pregnant service members affected by gestational diabetes was more than twice as high for obese women as for non-obese women (12.4% vs. 5.5%). The percentage of live births affected by gestational diabetes increased with increasing age and was highest among Asians/Pacific Islanders. Access the full report in the November 2017 MSMR (Vol. 24, No. 11). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR

This infographic documents the incidence and prevalence of gestational diabetes pregnant service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 – 2016.

Recommended Content:

Women's Health

Complications and Care Related to Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery among Active Component Service Women U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 – 2016

Infographic
1/5/2018
Maternal complications and delivery outcomes are important components of the overall health and well-being of reproductive-age service women. This analysis provides an update on pregnancy complications and characterizes the counts, rates, and trends of several specific pregnancy complications. FINDINGS •	55,601 U.S. service women whose pregnancies resulted in 63,879 live births had 657,060 medical encounters •	For all age groups, percentages of live births affected by preterm labor decreased, but during 2012 – 2016, the percentages of pregnant service members diagnosed with obesity increased. •	The percentage of pregnant service members affected by gestational diabetes was more than twice as high for obese women, compared with non-obese women (12.4% vs. 5.5%). Bar graph shows the number of medical encounters with a primary (first-listed) diagnosis of any pregnancy-related complication or indication for care decreased each year between 2012 and 2016. Access the full report in the November 2017 MSMR (Vol. 24, No. 11). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR  Background image: New born being provided medical attention by nurse. Secondary image: babies of diverse background on a blanket.

This analysis provides an update on pregnancy complications and characterizes the counts, rates, and trends of several specific pregnancy complications.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Women's Health

Contraception among active component service women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012 – 2016

Infographic
1/5/2018
Because the majority of women serving in the Armed Forces are of childbearing age, and women’s military career opportunities have expanded into combat roles, contraceptive health care is an increasingly important public health issue. The lack of available, population-based descriptive information on contraceptive use among U.S. service women has generated questions and concerns about ready access to these medical products. This infographic summarizes the annual prevalence of permanent sterilization, as well as use of long – and short-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs and SARCs, respectively), contraceptive counseling services, and use of emergency contraception from 2012 through 2016, among active component service women. FINDINGS •	2012 through 2016, Sterilization decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% LARC use increased from 17.2% to 21.7%; SARC use decreased from 38.5% to 30.4%. •	Emergency contraception use increased from 0.4% to 1.9%. •	Among deployed women, the average annual prevalence of permanent sterilization was 4.2%. •	For deployed women, LARC use was 17.9% SARC use was 28.0%. •	Emergency contraception use among deployed women was 0.4%. •	262,907 (76.2%) women of childbearing potential (WOCBP) used either a LARC or a SARC at some time during the surveillance period. •	The vast majority of service women have utilized at least one form of contraception, and women are selecting LARCs in greater numbers with each passing year. The bar graph displays information on the annual prevalence of contraceptive utilization, by type, service women of child-bearing potential, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012– 2016. Graphic displayed: contraception option. Access the full report in the November 2017 MSMR (Vol. 24, No. 11). Go to: www.Health.mil/MSMR

This infographic summarizes the annual prevalence of permanent sterilization, as well as use of long – and short-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs and SARCs, respectively), contraceptive counseling services, and use of emergency contraception from 2012 through 2016, among active component service women.

Recommended Content:

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch | Women's Health
<< < 1 2 3 4 5  ... > >> 
Showing results 61 - 75 Page 5 of 9

DHA Address: 7700 Arlington Boulevard | Suite 5101 | Falls Church, VA | 22042-5101

Some documents are presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF reader is required for viewing. Download a PDF Reader or learn more about PDFs.